Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.

These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.

Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.



  • Difficulty with spelling
  • Difficulty with decoding
  • Deficit in the phonological component of language
  • Deficits unexpected in relation to cognitive abilities

Studies that that as many as 1 in 5 people are affected by dyslexia. Although it is the most common learning disability, most people with dyslexia have never been diagnosed.

Just a few common warning signs of dyslexia

  • Trouble memorizing address, phone number or the alphabet
  • A close relative with dyslexia
  • Inconsistent performance on school work
  • Letter and number reversals
  • Slow, choppy, inaccurate reading
  • Skips or misreads simple words and word endings
  • Terrible spelling
  • Difficulty reading and spelling irregular sight words (does, said, of…)
  • Trouble memorizing math facts
  • Difficulty learning to tie shoes.

Dysgraphia is the condition of impaired handwriting. Impaired handwriting can interfere with learning to spell words in writing and speed of writing text. Children with dysgraphia may have only impaired handwriting, only impaired spelling (without reading problems), or both impaired handwriting and impaired spelling (IDA Fact Sheets, 2017).

Dyslexia is primarily associated with trouble reading, but it can also affect writing, spelling, speaking, and math. Effective intervention involves systematic, explicit and multi-sensory instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. 


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